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Clinical Epidemiologist / Paediatrician

Dr Mackenzie is an epidemiologist/paediatrician with a particular interest in pneumococcal disease and vaccines, pneumonia and severe bacterial infections. He trained at the Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. His PhD at Menzies School of Health Research in Darwin described the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in northern Australia. His MPH studies focussed on Aboriginal health, epidemiology and statistics. He then spent two years with a paediatric HIV programme in Nairobi, Kenya, seconded from the University of Sydney. He has been based at the Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at LSHTM since 2008. Dr Mackenzie has been Clinical Epidemiologist at the Basse Field Station in The Gambia since 2008. He co-ordinates surveillance for pneumococcal disease and carriage in eastern Gambia, evaluating the effectiveness of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to reduce rates of invasive disease, radiologic pneumonia, carriage, and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination. He is also involved in studies evaluating different pneumococcal vaccine schedules, documenting short and long-term outcomes after childhood pneumonia, risk factors for pneumonia, evaluating IMCI criteria for pneumonia, and describing the epidemiology of pneumonia and the causes of serious bacterial illness.

       Selected Key Publications

  1. GA Mackenzie, PC Hill, SM Sahito, DJ Jeffries, I Hossain, C Bottomley, U Uchendu, D Ameh, M Ndiaye, CD Osuorah, O Adeyemi, J Pathirana, Y Olatunji, B Abatan, E Ahameefula, BS Muhammad, AE Fombah, D Saha, R Mackenzie, I Plumb, A Akano, B Ebruke, RC Ideh, B Kuti, P Githua, E Olutunde, O Ofordile, E Green, E Usuf, H Badji, UNA Ikumapayi, A Manjang, R Salaudeen, ED Nsekpong, S Jarju, M Antonio, S Sambou, L Ceesay, Y Lowe-Jallow, D Sowe, M Jasseh, K Mulholland, M Knoll, OS Levine, SR Howie, RA Adegbola, BM Greenwood, T Corrah. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on pneumonia in The Gambia: population-based surveillance and case-control studies. Lancet Inf Dis. 2017; 17(9): 965-973.
  2. G Mackenzie. The definition and classification of pneumonia. Pneumonia. 2016 Aug 22; 8: 14.
  3. E Usuf, G Mackenzie, S Sambou, D Atherly, C Suraratdecha. The Economic Burden of Childhood Pneumococcal Diseases in The Gambia. Cost Eff Resourc Alloc. 2016 Feb 17; 14(4): doi: 10.1186/s12962-016-0053-4.
  4. GA Mackenzie, PC Hill, DJ Jeffries, I Hossain, U Uchendu, D Ameh, M Ndiaye, O Adeyemi, J Pathirana, Y Olatunji, B Abatan, Muhammad BS, AE Fombah, D Saha, I Plumb, A Akano, B Ebruke, RC Ideh, B Kuti, P Githua, E Olutunde, O Ofordile, E Green, E Usuf, H Badji, UNA Ikumapayi, A Manjang, R Salaudeen, ED Nsekpong, S Jarju, M Antonio, S Sambou, L Ceesay, Y Lowe-Jallow, M Jasseh, K Mulholland, M Knoll, OS Levine, SR Howie, RA Adegbola, BM Greenwood, T Corrah. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia: a population-based surveillance study. Lancet Inf Dis. 2016 Feb 17; 16(6): 703-711.
  5. Aakash V Chhibber, Philip C Hill, James Jafali, Momodou Jasseh, Mohammad Ilias Hossain, Malick Ndiaye,  Jayani C Pathirana,‎ Brian Greenwood, Grant A Mackenzie. Child mortality after discharge from a health facility following suspected pneumonia, meningitis or septicaemia in rural Gambia: a cohort study. PLOS ONE. 2015 10(9); e0137095. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137095.
  6. Grant A Mackenzie, Usman NA Ikumapayi, Susana Scott, Olubukola Idoko, Aderonke Odutola, Malick Ndiaye,  Shah M Sahito, Chidiebereh D Osuorah, Ahmed Manjang, Sheikh Jarju, Abdoulie Bojang, Anna Roca, Ousman Secka, Akram Zaman, Lamin Ceesay, Yamundow Lowe-Jallow, Sana Sambou, Momodou Jasseh, Martin Antonio, Brian Greenwood, Beate Kampmann, Kim Mulholland, Tumani Corrah, Stephen RC Howie. Increased disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b: population-based surveillance in eastern Gambia, 2008–2013. Pediatr Inf Dis J. 2015;34(5):e107-112.
  7. Mackenzie GA, Bottomley C, van Hoek AJ, Jeffries D, Ota M, Zaman SM, Greenwood B, Cutts F. Efficacy of different pneumococcal conjugate vaccine schedules against pneumonia, hospitalisation, and mortality: re-analysis of a randomised trial in the Gambia. Vaccine. 2014; 32(21):2493-500.
  8. Grant Mackenzie, Ian Plumb, Sana Sambou, Debasish Saha, Uchendu Uchendu, Bolanle Akinsola, Usman N Ikumapayi, Ignatius Baldeh, Effua Usuf, Kebba Touray,   Momodou Jasseh, Stephen R Howie, Andre Wattiaux, Ellen Lee, Maria Deloria Knoll, Orin S Levine, Brian M Greenwood, Richard A Adegbola, Philip C Hill. Monitoring the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines into West Africa: Design and Implementation of a Population-Based Surveillance System. PLoS Med. 2012;9(1):e1001161.

       Research Interests

  • Pneumonia
  • Pneumococcal vaccines
  • Respiratory viruses
  • Invasive salmonella disease and its relationship with malaria
  • Malnutrition
  • Aetiology of sepsis

       Projects